Research Guides

Research Guides

▒ APA Style Guide



APA In-Text Citation


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Citation Overview

When you write an academic writing, you are bound to review a lot of previously published publications such as books and journal articles and cite the ideas, words, data and/or findings from the sources in your writing. Through this, you express and reveal your understanding on the topic. In doing so, you must not forget to attribute the sources in the correct manner in text, and in the reference list. Otherwise, your credential as a researcher will be damaged and your writing will be considered as the result of plagiarism. There is a setup style for “in-text citation” in APA, and the below summarizes the main points.

Indirect Quotations

  • What is it?
    - paraphrases or summaries of the words or ideas of the sources
    - makes up almost 90% of in-text citations
    - last name of the author, year of publication, page number of the source (not a must) in a parenthesis
    - You can lead the sentence by inserting the citation in the signal phrase.
    - You can finish the sentence by adding the citation at the end.
  • Structure
    - According to Last name (Year), your paraphrase or summary in a sentence format.
    - Your paraphrase or summary in a sentence format (Last name, Year).
    - Your paraphrase or summary in a sentence format (Last name, Year, p. number).
  • Example
    - Since slow reading has negative effects on comprehension, learners need to gradually improve reading fluency by using what they know already (Nation, 2009).
    - Nation (2009) pointed out that fluency activities could be misunderstood as training learners to read quickly every kind of text.

Direct Quotations

  • What is it?
    - exact word by word copying from the sources
    - effective tool to give the readers a strong impression
    - use only sparingly
    - last name of the author, year of publication, page number of the source, quotation marks for short quotations, one-half inch indentation for long quotation
  • Short Quotation (1 word ~39 words)
  • Even as theories have shifted back and forth like pendulum swings, we find that “grammar instruction has been relatively unaltered by research findings” (Larsen-Freeman, 2015, p. 263).
  • Long Quotation (more than 40 words)
    Furthermore, Nassaji and Fotos (2011, p. 94) introduced explicit grammar-focused tasks.
  • It is also communicative, involving meaningful language exchange takin taking place as a primary task component, yet there is an explicit focus on form since the task content is the grammar structure itself. Learners are required to solve grammar problems through meaning-focused interaction and are often given task cards with sentences using the target structure to read to their group. It is often an information-gap task format, where learners have to listen to their task members presenting information that they do not have and take careful note of the information given. Based on combining the sentences presented by each group member and examining all of them, the group then constructs a rule for the use of the structure.

APA References at IGSE


Useful Sites

  • Purdue Owl’s Writing Lab