Research Guides

▒ Types of Sources

Types of Sources


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Primary Sources (Information)

  • Overview
    Unedited, firsthand access to words, images, or objects created by persons directly involved in an activity or event or speaking directly for a group. This is information before it has been analyzed, interpreted, commented upon, spun, or repackaged.
  • Examples
    - Paintings
    - Interviews
    - works of fiction
    - research reports
    - Theses/Dissertations
    - Scholarly articles
    - sales receipts
    - speeches
    - letters / e-mails
Thesis/project belong to the category of primary source.

Secondary Sources (Information)

  • Overview
    Commentary upon, or analysis of, events, ideas, or primary sources. Because they are often written significantly after events by parties not directly involved but who have special expertise, they may provide historical context or critical perspectives. Another type includes a guide to primary source.
  • Examples
    - articles from encyclopedia
    - handbook chapters
    - review articles
    - literature reviews
    - chapters from edited books
    - reference lists
    - indexes
    - annotated bibliographies
    - abstracts
  • Major Secondary Sources at IGSE
    Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching & Learning
    * Editor: Eli Hinkel
    * Published in: 2014
    * Call Number: T0.4 ED3a/4a
    The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics
    * Editor: Carol A. Chapelle
    * Published in: 2013
    * Call Number: T0.3 AP1a~10a
    * Electronic version is accessible at IGSE
    Annual Review of Applied Linguistics
    * Specialized literature review journal
    * Paper journal: 1980. Vol.1~
    * Electronic Journal: 2004. Vol. 24~
    Language Teaching
    * Specialized review journal
    * Paper journal: 1990. Vol.23. No. 1~
    * Electronic Journal: 2004. Vol. 37 No.1~